Printing of banknotes, stamps and other securities (2)

At the same time as the military incursions, Western powers also infused Western money into China and printed money for local and private silver of China. Their printed banknotes were beautifully drawn and well-printed due to the use of advanced modern printing techniques, which attracted the attention of people of insight in the Qing government. In particular, some government officials who have advocated innovation have discussed the court and asked the government to introduce advanced western banknote printing technology to issue banknotes in China to suit the economic needs of the Qing government at that time.

In the 32nd year of Guangxu (1906), the Ministry of the People's Republic (later renamed the Branch Branch) dispatched personnel to Japan to inspect the printing technology of banknotes, and in March of that year presented the court with a memorial about the establishment of the official printing bureau. The memorial said: "... To find out that the original banknotes are good for business people, it is indeed an organ of finance.... All countries in the world issue banknotes and all official papers. Wherever there is value, it is the government's authority to guard against civil society." Privately made... When the ministerial office is in the midst of reorganizing the fiscal, it is highly advisable to take the initiative and take the initiative to prepare and establish the foundation... Afterwards, in 1907, when the inspectors returned to China, they again played the method of setting up the printing office and submissions. At this time, in order to save the crisis situation, the Qing government must reunite the law and replace the right of interest; in order to control the financial economy, it must issue banknotes. In addition, at this time, China’s industry and commerce has achieved initial development, and domestic and foreign trade has increased. The old-fashioned banknotes issued by China’s old silver, silver and Qing government have been unable to meet the needs of the circulation sector at that time. Objectively, Chinese banknotes are also higher and newer. The level of development proposed. The result was that the Qing government adopted the ruling of the Ministry of Housing and decided to establish it;

In 1907, the Qing government approved the ruling of the Ministry of Housing, the Ministry of the People's Government started the work, the printing department of the Ministry of the People's Republic of China, and the preparation work for the establishment of the Ministry of Education. In view of the world’s banknote printing industry at that time, the steel plate engraving and gravure printing technology adopted by American Banknote Corporation was in the leading position. Therefore, the Qing government sent staff to the United States to investigate and determine the size of the United States; the National Printing Bureau of the United States and Beijing; And level, build China's official printing bureau.

At that time, there were two kinds of engraving and gravure techniques, one was a copper intaglio technique and the other was a steel intaglio technique. Compared with the two, the texture of the steel intaglio plate is solid, with detailed printed lines, distinct layers, and printing plates that are resistant to printing. The lines of printed products are clear and the ink layer is thick. The performance of the human head and landscape paintings has particularly unique effects. And not easy to counterfeit, with good anti-counterfeiting features.

The printing bureau was located at the White Paper Square outside Xuanwumen in Beijing, covering an area of ​​over 240,000 square meters. Construction began on June 1, 1908. Designed and drafted by the American Miracle Company, the Japanese company Huasheng Company was contracted and the old American flag Changyang Line was responsible for the purchase and installation of machinery and equipment, costing 1.1 million yuan of silver. At the same time, it also set about establishing an organization. Under the general office and subordinate office, there are two offices for affairs and public works. The Public Works Department is a production management department, which consists of five sections including plate making, color making (ink making), printing, finishing, and machinery. In addition to the printing of banknotes, the Qing government also assigned the stamp printing of the postal department to the printing bureau for printing.

In order to master the steel gravure carving technology, the Qing government spared no expense, from the United States hired the engraver Hai Qu and other five American technicians to work in the printing bureau, and taught the steel gravure engraving and plate making technology. The establishment of the printing branch of the Branch and the arrival of American technicians such as Hai Qu, created a new era in the history of Chinese banknote printing technology.

In the process of preparation, the Printing Department of the Branch of the Ministry of Finance and Industry has built factories and recruited personnel for technical training. Particularly worth mentioning is that from the Tianjin Guanzhi Bureau enrolled people who had studied the engraving of copper intaglio technology with the Japanese people Bi Chennian, Li Xin, Yan Xilin, Wu Jintao and others. After a period of study, they all mastered the steel gravure engraving. The technology became China's first-generation sculpting steel intaglio technician. It was the focus of the printing industry at that time and laid a solid foundation for the further development of Chinese carved steel gravure technology.

The plate printing equipment of the printing bureau was arranged according to the scale and level of the printing press company in the United States and was at the advanced level in the world at that time. There are mainly universal engraving machines purchased from the United States (see Fig. 13-12), steel plate presses (Fig. 17-12), and hand-pitch gravure presses (Figs. 17-13), as well as lithographic machines, printers, and circles. Plate machine, printer, camera and other plate printing equipment and generators and other corresponding power equipment. Its complete equipment, advanced technology, can only be called domestic and world-class. By 1914, the printing bureau was completed. (Colour 17-14) is a panorama of the printing office of Wu Jintao's sculpture. The Qing government did not hesitate to spend huge sums of money for the printing department of the planning branch. This move is undoubtedly a major contribution to the printing industry in China.

Coloring book 17-14

After Haiqin came to the Printing Bureau, he trained the technology, sponsored the design and the first banknote of the Printing and Printing Bureau; Daqing Bank's exchange coupon; This set of Daqing Bank voucher is divided into one yuan, five yuan, ten yuan and one hundred yuan. There are four kinds in total. There are statues of the king of the regent Wang Zai on the face of the bill, and the dragon is vacated on the top, one dollar for the sailboat on the lower right and five knights for the knight. Ten yuan is the ancient city, one hundred yuan for farming. In order to engrave a portrait of the avatar, Hai Qu had personally dressed his royal clothes and visited the Prince of the Regent himself. After returning, with great excitement, he worked together with Chinese carving staff to complete the exquisite but historic collection of the Daqing Bank voucher in August 1910, and printed proofs in 1911. March 1 officially opened. This marks that China's banknote printing technology has been raised to a new level, and only a few countries in the world can reach the advanced level. For this reason, the Printing Bureau set March 1st 1911 as the anniversary of banknote printing.

Figure 17-12 plate machine

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