With the rapid development of society and economy in China, since early 2003, some large foreign companies and large companies (such as American International Jifeng Group Corporation, Tetra Pak, etc.) have been optimistic about China's packaging market, seized the opportunity, and invested in China's packaging. The industry has promoted the rapid development of the enterprise packaging industry and its product quality. According to reports, the output value of the packaging industry in China last year reached 273 billion yuan.
At the same time, the rapid economic development has led to an increasing share of packaging in domestic waste. Effective control and reduction of packaging waste is very important for reducing the amount of solid waste generated. According to the survey, of the more than 600 cities in the country, more than 200 were surrounded by various types of garbage. The main reason for this was excessive packaging. At present, 30% of the volume of municipal solid waste is composed of various kinds of packaging. Therefore, attention should be paid to the study of moderate packaging.
First, packaging and moderate packaging
Packaging has two meanings. First, it refers to the process of designing and manufacturing images, colors, patterns, materials, etc., as well as the decoration and marking of brands and trademarks on the packaging. First, it refers to the packaging of designs. The goods are bundled up to make it easy to transport and sell. The packaging of products is mainly for the protection of goods and the environment, improve operational efficiency, promote sales, increase profits and so on. In general, there are three types of packaging: moderate packaging, excessive packaging, and lack of packaging. Appropriate packaging corresponds to over-packaging. The main reason is to use simple, design-refined, recyclable packaging to bind the product. Moderate packaging avoids the deterioration of products, beautifies and protects the goods, and saves resources; the production of packaging materials causes a reduction in resources, packaging waste increases the environmental pollution, and excessive packaging wastes resources and destroys the environment. The foothold for the development of the packaging industry should be the effective use of resources and the improvement and protection of the ecological environment.
Second, the analysis of the necessity of moderate packaging
(a) From a legal perspective, since April 2005, excessive packaging will be banned and people are legally encouraged to use easy-to-recycle packaging. The newly revised Law on the Prevention and Control of Environmental Pollution Caused by Solid Waste clearly stipulates that: â€œThe State Councilâ€™s administrative department for standardization shall organize and formulate relevant standards in accordance with the stateâ€™s economic and technical conditions, the prevention and control of environmental pollution caused by solid waste, and the technical requirements of products, in order to prevent excessive packaging from causing environmental problems. The law also stipulates that enterprises that produce, sell, and import products and packaging that are legally listed in the compulsory recycling catalogue must be recycled according to the relevant state regulations. The law makes it clear that the State encourages scientific research and production units to research and manufacture thin film coverings and commodity packaging that are easy to recycle, easy to handle, or that can be degraded in the environment. The law also requires that units and individuals using agricultural film should take measures such as recycling to prevent or reduce pollution of the agricultural film to the environment.
(b) From a marketing perspective, common packaging strategies include similar packaging strategies, hierarchical packaging strategies, dual-use packaging strategies, supporting packaging strategies, and complimentary packaging strategies. The empirical data shows that the packaging can not exceed 13%-15% of the value of the goods themselves. With the consumers becoming more and more rational, the judgment of the value of the products, the care for the environment and the implementation of the ethical consumption all make the packaging of the products appropriate. .
III. Analysis of Packaging Status in Developed Countries
In terms of controlling excessive packaging, the United States and Canada policies stipulate that one of the following situations is deceptive packaging: there are too many vacancies in the packaging; the height and volume of the packaging and containers are too different; the packaging is exaggerated without reason, non-technical Needed on the. At the end of the 1980s, the U.S. federal government formulated the general policy of packaging and environmental protection: reduction, recycling, recycling, and incineration of packaging materials. In the 1990s, there were two development plans for the US packaging industry: reducing raw materials by 15%. At least 25% of the quantity and packaging products are recyclable, both of which have been recognized by the packaging industry, and many experts believe that reducing the use of raw materials is the main trend of development. The United States has not yet legislated, but now 37 states have separately And determine the recycling quota of packaging waste. According to the recycling of various materials by the US Environmental Protection Agency (DEP) every year, any container that has recovered more than 50% can be exempted from pre-charge. In Canada, residents collected the tin cans, glass bottles, newspapers, aluminum cans, plastics, etc. into blue plastic boxes or plastic bags, and 10 million people collected and classified 460,000 tons of packaging waste. On average, each inhabitant collected 46 kilograms of waste, and the Japanese government drafted the â€œEnergy Conservation and Promotion Recovery Actâ€ in 1992, which came into effect in June 1993. Emphasizing the need to produce recyclable packaging products and the selective collection of recyclable packaging waste, the Act has achieved good results: 97% of glass beer bottles and 81% of rice wine bottles have been recycled, and 5 years of processing and regeneration have been built. Tons of recycling plastics factories To improve the recycling rate of packaging waste, the government put forward in April 1995 based on the â€œpolluter paysâ€ principle: Consumers are responsible for sorting packaging waste, and the municipal government is responsible for collecting classified packaging waste. After the approval of the government, the private enterprise reprocessed the packaging waste, and at the same time, Japan formulated the â€œNew Guidelines for Packaging,â€ which stipulates that the volume of the packaging container should be as small as possible, and the empty space in the container should not exceed 20% of the container volume; The cost should not exceed 15% of the product's selling price; packaging should show the value of the product correctly so as not to mislead consumers.
In addition, in Tokyo, Japan's "Product Packaging Gift Packaging Appropriate Details" also stipulates that: the gap in the packaging container in principle can not exceed 20% of the entire container; the gap between the goods and goods must be less than 1 cm; The gap between the inner walls of the packing box must be kept below 5 mm; the packing cost must be less than 15% of the price of the entire product. The German government stipulates that the act of exaggerating the actual capacity of the inner packaging with an enlarged package is a fraudulent act and will be dealt with. In Germany, the "Law on Waste" promulgated in 1986 and the "Regulations on Packaging" promulgated in June 1991 became the first laws and regulations in the world that stipulate the collection, sorting, and disposal costs of packaging waste by manufacturers and manufacturers of packaged goods. Its central goal is to reduce the total amount of packaging waste. In 1990, the Waste Packaging Organization (DSD) was established by 95 packaging, consumer, and retail industries to collect sales packaging and post-consumer packaging. DSD members pay DSD fees and obtain the â€œGreen Pointâ€ packaging symbol, which is determined by the type and weight of the packaging material. Companies that are not members of the DSD must implement the economic regulations in the packaging regulations and spend more. Foreign importers apply for the use of "green dot" packaging to pay DSD for the type and weight of the packaging material. Other European countries such as Austria, Belgium, Denmark, and the Netherlands have enacted relevant laws and regulations to address the environmental impact of packaging waste. PVNKT is a trademark of the Austrian recycling organization. Companies that want to use this trademark must obtain a license. In Austria, 50% of citizens consciously and carefully classify their home-wrapped waste according to the â€œRegulations on Packagingâ€. 7.2 million people were involved in the collection of glass packaging waste, household waste was reduced by 10% in major cities, and small cities and villages were reduced by 25%. Belgian law stipulates that any paper packaging directly contacted by food shall be exempted from taxation. If there is evidence that the beverage can container has been used repeatedly for 7 times without taxation, the other shall pay â€œecological taxâ€. The â€œGreen Dotâ€ logo printed on the packaging material indicates that the packaging is related to the special collection, classification, and recovery system in terms of funding. If a company wants to have the right to use the â€œGreen Dotâ€ trademark, it must pay a special license fee, which is related to the packaging materials and weight, and is determined by the â€œmaterial chain deficitâ€. The material chain deficit is "calculated by subtracting the total cost of packaging materials collected and classified for the packaging from the reduction of packaging waste and the sale of classified packaging waste. 71% of Danish household waste has become a power plant. Fuel, as early as 1975 in Denmark to develop "packaging regulations." Now has the recycling of packaging waste recycling treatment first, and the incineration of energy production to second place.
Fourth, the enlightenment of China's product packaging
From the analysis above, we can see that there are currently three major foreign control methods for overpacking: The first category is standard control, ie, the volume of the packaging, the gap between the packaging and the commodity, the number of packaging layers, the cost of packaging, and the value of the commodity. Scales, etc. set limit criteria. Such as South Korea, Japan, Canada and other countries. The second category is the control of economic instruments, such as the collection of packaging taxes on non-paper-based packaging and on packaging that does not meet the recycling requirements, such as Belgium. In addition, through the garbage metering charge, consumers are guided to choose a simple package, such as the Netherlands. The third category is to increase the producer's responsibility and stipulate that the producer of goods is responsible for the recovery of the packaging of goods. Usually, a deposit system can be used to entrust relevant commercial organizations to recycle the packaging. In order to facilitate recycling, producers will actively choose to use less material and easy to recycle packaging design, such as Germany, France and other countries. For the proper packaging of enterprise products in China, attention should be paid to the following points:
(1) Technological innovation of packaging In the process of implementing proper packaging, the technological innovation of packaging is the key, such as vigorously developing special packaging paper for food, so that it can maintain the fragrance, freshness, and heat of cooked food packaging for people's convenience. Eat in order to adapt to the fast pace of life, the principle of this insulation paper is to convert light energy into heat like a solar collector. Usually people only need to put this special paper in the place where the sun can shine, the space surrounded by the paper will continue to be replenished with heat, so that the food in the paper will maintain a certain degree of heat; in the next ten years, With the development of the global economy, the acceleration of urbanization, the improvement of peopleâ€™s living standards, and the upgrading of the consumption structure, the supply and demand of the paper product market will continue to grow rapidly. The paper packaging industry has a huge space for development. The birth of paper cans will overcome The various drawbacks of aluminum cans, has broad prospects for development, making it widely used in paint, chemicals, food, medicine and other packaging and production of paper lunch boxes, paper cups, paper drums and other products.
(b) Pay attention to the recycling of packaging materials.
In recent years, with the rapid economic growth, people in Hong Kong are increasingly concerned about the combination of packaging products and environmental protection. The use of waste paper recycling made recycled cartons, paper bags, cartons, etc., banned part of the plastic packaging products that are not conducive to environmental protection; the use of waste paper to replace, instead of polystyrene foam, has become the development trend of Hong Kong packaging products. Extend responsibility for production responsibility, that is, producers must not only take responsibility for environmental pollution during the production process, but also take responsibility for recycling or disposal of scrapped products or used packaging. Reduce, Reuse, Recycle, and Degradable are the green principles of the world packaging industry, abbreviated as "3R1D", that is, packaging should be reduced, reused, recycled, and degradable.
According to Che Xiangfu, deputy secretary-general of the China Packaging Technology Association, the packaging of goods should be as small and light as possible on the basis of achieving the goal of protecting the goods and beautifying the goods; the packaging, such as bottles, can be reused several times. Packaging that cannot be reused must be recyclable; and packaging that is not effective should be able to degrade instead of becoming hazardous waste. Meet the above four criteria, it can be called green packaging.
(c) Strengthen consumer education.
Strengthening education on consumer legal awareness, environmental awareness and extra costs can also effectively promote proper packaging. In the United States, consumers have a very simple understanding of simple packaging.
We can use these bags to pack pharmaceutical products, tea bags, coffee pods, coffee capsules, organic powders, spices, herbs, pet food, flour, sugar, salt, pesticides, biscuits, tobacco, cereals, cosmetics, chocolates, fish, sea food etc.